--- at least two others which did not survive infancy. The Roman emperor Augustus began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. He proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender. He eventually drove the Gallic forces into Alesia (near modern Dijon, France) and surrounded the town with massive earthwork walls. Others, admitting that he could be ruthless, insist that the Republic had already been destroyed. In fact, Caesar's reforms did stabilize the Mediterranean world. Considering that his great, great, great, great, great, great, great grandfather was Mars, this might actually make complete sense. The republican machinery had broken down under the weight of imperialism, the central government had become powerless, the provinces had been transformed into independent principalities under the absolute control of their governors, and the army had replaced the constitution as the means of accomplishing political goals. Unable to gain office, he left Rome again and went to Rhodes, where he studied rhetoric; he returned to Rome in 73 bc, a very persuasive speaker. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory with a triumphal procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 BC. The tribunes, who were Caesar's agents, vetoed this motion, but they were driven out of the Senate chamber. He went on a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, but he spent so long at Nicomedes' court that rumors arose of an affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively; Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards. Under Caesar, the Romans gained control of Gaul, a region substantially identical to present-day France, by 57 bc. Livia Drusilla (after 14 CE called Julia Augusta) (58 BCE-29 CE) was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and one of the most powerful women in the Roman Empire, being Augustus' faithful advisor. Octavian divorced Scribonia in 39 BCE, on the very day that Scribonia gave birth to his daughter Julia the Elder (Cassius Dio)... in what has to be considered a masterpiece in timing. Serves him right. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion. Though the Gallic tribes were just as strong as the Romans militarily, the internal division among the Gauls guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar. After Marcellus’ death, and by a Senatorial decree, Octavia married Mark Antony (October 40 BCE). Tiberius was one of Ancient Rome's greatest generals, whose campaigns in Pannonia, Illyricum, Rhaetia and Germania laid the foundations for the northern frontier. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. A member of the order was equivalent to being a "knight": [Have horse, will travel... and fight... and travel and fight some more... and on and on and on...] Actually, the motto is: [“Have “a composite bronze cuirass, Attic-style helmet with horsehair plume, pteruges, and mantle... (as well as) a spear and small round shield.”] In Latin, Carpe Jugulum [1]. The result became known as the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar did not complete his conquest of Gaul without resistance. Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Easy come; easy go. 1st century BC) was a Roman politician and senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC. Birth 12 Jul 100 BC, Rome, Italy. ], 2. A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf. Gaius Julius Caesar IV Emperor Of Rome. According to Suetonius, Drusus was born with the praenomen Decimus, but it was later changed to Nero. The narrative recounts stories that later became the source material for much great British literature and art, such as the tales of Merlin and King Arthur, and King Lear and his daughters Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia. To bring the calendar into alignment with the seasons, he decreed that three extra months be inserted into 46 BC (the ordinary intercalary month at the end of February, and two extra months after November). Like how Julius Caesar adopted Octavian. He ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and that jurors could only come from the Senate or the equestrian ranks. His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist who lived in the 1st century ad. It helped that he was Caesar's second cousin, once removed, by his mother Julia Antonia. Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. The Triumvirate ended when Crassus was killed fighting the Parthians in the east. Antonia never had the chance to know her father, Mark Antony, who had 1) been away since her birth, 2) divorced her mother in 32 BCE, and 3) committed suicide in 30 BCE when she was six. When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province. They maintain that to save the Roman world from chaos a new type of government had to be created. The Civil War: & the Wars in Alexandria, Africa and Spain. A crowd who had gathered there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighboring buildings. Caesar drew on his leadership abilities and military brilliance to rally his legions. Only its altar now remains. Caesar proposed a law for redistributing public lands to the poor—by force of arms, if need be—a proposal supported by Pompey and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Unique Unit: Praetorian Unique Building: Forum Starting Techs: Fishing, Mining Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. Plutarch describes her as a "strict and respectable" woman. Antonia Minor, also known as Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BCE-September/October 37 CE) was a daughter of Roman politician Mark Antony and Octavia Minor (the latter from whom she inherited the more impressive lineage). When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, the ranks of the Senate had been severely depleted, so he used his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raised the Senate's membership to 900. Balbus died in 52 BCE and Julia died a year later. Her father was consul in 119 BCE and her paternal grandfather of the same name was consul in 144 BCE. Combined with his other powers, this gave him a formidable position. She was still alive when her niece Julia the Elder married Tiberius (aka the TIBERIUS, Rome’s Emperor following the AUGUSTUS, and preceding the CALIGULA). This means that for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. By concentrating the power of the Republic in one man, Caesar opened the way for the creation of the Roman Empire ruled by an emperor. [The fact that he became Rome’s most notable Emperor/Dictator since Romulus, may be considered to speak volumes about Aurelia.] Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. On his return to Rome, he was elected military tribune, a first step in a political career. This removed the last buffer between Caesar and Pompey; their family ties had been broken by the death of Julia in 54 bc. Antonia would often offer Caligula advice, but he once told her, I can treat anyone exactly as I please! His forces far outnumbered Caesar's, but they were scattered throughout the provinces, and his troops in Italy were not prepared for war. Livia always enjoyed the status of privileged counselor to her husband, petitioning him on the behalf of others and influencing his policies, an unusual role for a Roman wife in a culture dominated by the paterfamilias, godfathers, and the like. He was elected into many public offices and, in 63BC, bribed his way to become Pontifex Maximus (high priest). In 47 BCE Marcellus was able to intercede with Caesar for his cousin and namesake, also a former consul, then living in exile. Mark Antony and Cleopatra had already met in 41 BCE, and had subsequently produced twins. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days by adding an intercalary/leap day at the end of February every fourth year. 3. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces bordered on unconquered territory, and parts of Gaul were known to be unstable. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long-neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar. She was raised by her mother, her uncle, Augustus, and her aunt, Livia Drusilla. Han ble senere diktator på livstid og utarbeidet mange reformer, både sosialt og politisk. This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the emperor Augustus. Despite being heavily outnumbered, Surena's cavalry completely outmaneuvered the Roman heavy infantry, killing or capturing most of the Roman soldiers. deserts.] Marcellus died in May 40 BCE. Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed dictator, with a term of one year. Cicero was consul that year, and he exposed Catiline's conspiracy to seize control of the republic; several senators accused Caesar of involvement in the plot. Cæsars militære bragder er derimot bare kjent fra hans egne rapporter til senatet. The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. Claudia Marcella Major Tiberius then adopts Gaius Caesar … ": "You too, child?" Pompey escaped to Egypt, where he was assassinated. Despite their wealth and power, Augustus's family continued to live modestly in their house on the Palatine Hill. Crassus became the other consul. In the ensuing chaos, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire. After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College. Geni requires JavaScript! As a ruler Caesar instituted various reforms. Caius Iulius Caesar (vagy Gaius Julius Caesar [ejtsd júliusz kaiszar, illetve júliusz cézár]; i. e. 100. július 12./13. Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. The Romans feared these tribes were preparing to migrate south, closer to Italy, and that they had warlike intent. The alliance... not to mention the marriage... was severely tested when Mark Antony abandoning Octavia and all of the children for his former lover, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. [Augustus and Livia (and their extended, largely dysfunctional family) are marvelously dramatized in the television series, “I Claudius” -- based upon Robert Graves’ two books, I, Claudius and Claudius, the God. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. After an especially great victory, army troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph. In 59 BCE, Octavius sailed to Rome, to stand for election as consul. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. They may have been presented as public readings. His father Gaius Octavius was a municipal magistrate who lived to an advanced age. 2003© Copyright Dan Sewell Ward, All Rights Reserved                     [Feedback]. In 26 CE, Tiberius exiled himself from Rome and left the administration on the Empire largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. At the same time Marcus Licinius Crassus, a rich patrician, suppressed in Italy the slave revolt led by Spartacus. In 54 BCE, her great uncle Caesar was anxious for her to divorce her husband so that she could marry Pompey... the latter who had just lost his wife Julia (Julius Caesar's daughter and thus Octavia's cousin once removed). (This is a brief version... see Wikipedia for a more complete tree, including dead-end, branches, twigs, offshoots, offpoisoneds, boughs, bores, and chicken wings.). Sejanus was murdered/executed on Tiberius’s orders, and Livilla was handed over to her formidable mother [an oxymoron?]. His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results. Marcus Junius Brutus: The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar) as his principal heir, leaving his vast estate and property including his name. Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, and his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. He was stabbed 23 times. Decimus Claudius Drusus, aka Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, aka Drusus the Elder... et al [97] Tiberius Nero I (=Livia Drusilla Augusta) [96] Drusus Claudius Nero [95] ... Consul Tiberius Claudius Nero [?] After Mark Antony's suicide following the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, Octavian had removed all obstacles to his power and henceforth ruled as Emperor, from 27 BCE on, under the honorary title Augustus. Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus. His uncle by marriage (oxford classical, Hornblower p.925) was the famous military leader and seven times consul, Gaius Marius and in an effort to keep Julius from becoming a great man in the history of Rome, Marius appointed him flamen diales, or priest of Jupiter. The new emperor awarded Antonia a senatorial decree, granting her all the honors Livia Drusilla had received in her lifetime. [Let’s see now: “prima”, “caesonia”, “tertia”... which would amount to (in English) as: “one, two, three”. He could declaim and recite poems very well. He was an important supporter and the loyal friend of Gaius Julius Caesar, both as a military commander and as an administrator. In 60 BCE, after his term had ended, he was appointed propraetor, and was to serve as governor of Macedonia. De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC, and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, and included images of her husband Marius in the funeral procession, unseen since the days of Sulla. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during Senate meetings. In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after 11 days, resigned this dictatorship. They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumor of what had taken place had begun to spread. Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. Tiberius was made emperor, but he was highly unpopular and the legions rioted on the news. He goes on to describe the murder, in 52 bc, of Publius Clodius Pulcher, a tribune known for terrorizing people with his gladiators. The year before, while still absent, he had been elected to the pontificate, an important college of Roman priests. By Vipsania: According to Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished. Germanicus Julius Caesar He even invaded Britain twice. In 59BC, Caesar formed a coalition (Triumvirate) with two important Roman citizens: Crassus, a rich banker and Pompey, Rome's leading general. This Tirumvirate was to dominate Roman politics for several years. His names Augustus and Caesar were adopted by every subsequent emperor, and the month of Sextilis officially became August. Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. Despite the large number of his descendants, the line was apparently extinct less than a hundred and seventy years after his death. [Isn’t that nice? He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. He supposedly died in the same bedroom where Augustus would pass away many years later. Despite everything, however, Octavia appears to have been a loyal and faithful wife to Antony. They were Atia’s older sister Atia Balba Prima and younger sister Atia Balba Tertia. He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honors upon him. He told them that they did not know whom they had caught and told them his ransom should have been much more. 1) Clodia Pulchra (43–40 BC) Pompeia was a sister to consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, father of triumvir Pompey. Octavius was elected quaestor in 70 BCE. Julius Caesar From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Caesar's body was cremated, and on the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Hans mot var fra Cottae-grenen av Aureliafamilien, en rik familie som tilhørte plebeierne. His short biographies of notable Greek and Roman figures are renowned not only for what they reveal about ancient life, but also for their study of character. In Rome Caesar became dictator until elected consul for 48 bc. When Caesar was born in 100BC, Rome ruled much of the Mediterranean. Her mother Rutilia, was a member of the gens Rutilius cognominated Rufus. The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule. Gaius Julius Caesar was born about -163 in Rome, Roma, Italy, son of Gaius Julius Caesar and N.N. Caesar's problem was that he became too powerful, alienating men who previously had a share of power. Even so, one can see certain family resemblances. Also... before Augustus married Livia, Tiberius Claudius Nero I was declared Drusus' biological father. 16870305536220235 ii. After this, he passed a law that rewarded families for having many children, to speed up the repopulation of Italy. ], Balbus married Julia Minor, second eldest sister of dictator Gaius Julius Caesar IV. Plutarch claimed that during the Gallic Wars the army had fought against three million men (of whom one million died, and another million were enslaved), subjugated 300 tribes, and destroyed 800 cities. It is not known which of the Julias gave evidence against Publius Clodius Pulcher, when he was impeached for impiety in 61 BCE. Marcus Livius Drusus was her brother. Gaius Julius Caesar OCTAVIANUS Thurinus AUGUSTUS (23 September 63 BCE – 19 August 14 CE) was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 31 BCE until his death. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the … Vipsania Agrippina, 20 to 12 BCE Aurelia and her family were very influential in her son’s upbringing and security. In an exceedingly short engagement later that year, he decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus, in Greece. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Marius's enemy and leader of the Optimates, was made dictator in 82 bc, he issued a list of enemies to be executed. This calendar is almost identical to the current Western calendar. She was deified by Claudius who acknowledged her title of Augusta. He passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed. When Caesar was first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit his future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than the governorship of a province, as his military command duty after his year in office was over. Death 15 Mar 44 BC, Theatre of Pompey, Rome, Italy. Caligula was rumored to have had his young cousin Gemellus beheaded, to remove him as a rival to the throne. Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. 1. Since his absence from Rome might limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. Look up in Linguee; Suggest as a translation of "Gaius Julius Caesar" ... the stone cyppus standing at the beginning of Via IV Novembre. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. A number of senatorial families, however, felt that Caesar threatened their position, and his honors and powers made them fear that he would become a rex (king), a title they, as Republicans, hated. -2. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar. Because of this Marcellus continued to oppose Julius Caesar including the crucial year of his consulship 50 BCE. Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni. Atia and Philippus carefully tutored and educated their children. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semiofficial or popular cult, with Mark Antony as his high priest. He served as quaestor to Julius Caesar in 48 BCE, commanding his fleet in the Alexandrian War. As a young man, Caesar distinguished himself in roman society. He was raised in Claudius Nero's house with his brother, the future emperor Tiberius, until his father's death. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. The younger Balbus was born and raised in Aricia. She was also mother to Drusus (the Elder) and Tiberius, as well as the grandmother to Germanicus and Claudius, great-grandmother to Caligula and Agrippina the Younger and great-great-grandmother to Nero. Nothing else is known about the life of the elder sister. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate... in full accordance with the age old adage that the enemies of my enemy are my friends. When his grandmother Antonia asked for a private interview, he refused it except in the presence of the prefect Macro, and by such indignities and annoyances he caused her death; although some think that he also gave her poison. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years... with historians naming it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caesar took Vercingetorix back to Rome where he was later executed.Corbis. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic. [Good! Han tilhørte patrisierfamilien gens Iulia. Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, who was the daughter of another powerful senator. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. Father Gaius Julius III Caesar (124bc-84bc) Mother Aurelia.